Bennett and Peter Michael Stephan Hacker One formal definition indicating the range of these cognate meanings is given in Webster's Third New International Dictionary stating that consciousness is:.
Word Origin & History
In medicine, consciousness is examined using a set of procedures known as neuropsychological assessment. The simple procedure begins by asking whether the patient is able to move and react to physical stimuli. If so, the next question is whether the patient can respond in a meaningful way to questions and commands. If so, the patient is asked for name, current location, and current day and time.
The more complex procedure is known as a neurological examination , and is usually carried out by a neurologist in a hospital setting. A formal neurological examination runs through a precisely delineated series of tests, beginning with tests for basic sensorimotor reflexes, and culminating with tests for sophisticated use of language. The outcome may be summarized using the Glasgow Coma Scale , which yields a number in the range 3—15, with a score of 3 to 8 indicating coma, and 15 indicating full consciousness.
The Glasgow Coma Scale has three subscales, measuring the best motor response ranging from "no motor response" to "obeys commands" , the best eye response ranging from "no eye opening" to "eyes opening spontaneously" and the best verbal response ranging from "no verbal response" to "fully oriented".
There is also a simpler pediatric version of the scale, for children too young to be able to use language. In , an experimental procedure was developed to measure degrees of consciousness, the procedure involving stimulating the brain with a magnetic pulse, measuring resulting waves of electrical activity, and developing a consciousness score based on the complexity of the brain activity.
Medical conditions that inhibit consciousness are considered disorders of consciousness. One of the most striking disorders of consciousness goes by the name anosognosia , a Greek-derived term meaning 'unawareness of disease'. This is a condition in which patients are disabled in some way, most commonly as a result of a stroke , but either misunderstand the nature of the problem or deny that there is anything wrong with them. Patients with hemispatial neglect are often paralyzed on the right side of the body, but sometimes deny being unable to move.
When questioned about the obvious problem, the patient may avoid giving a direct answer, or may give an explanation that doesn't make sense. Patients with hemispatial neglect may also fail to recognize paralyzed parts of their bodies: An even more striking type of anosognosia is Anton—Babinski syndrome , a rarely occurring condition in which patients become blind but claim to be able to see normally, and persist in this claim in spite of all evidence to the contrary.
William James is usually credited with popularizing the idea that human consciousness flows like a stream, in his Principles of Psychology of According to James, the "stream of thought" is governed by five characteristics: Buddhist teachings describe that consciousness manifests moment to moment as sense impressions and mental phenomena that are continuously changing. The mental events generated as a result of these triggers are: The moment-by-moment manifestation of the mind-stream is said to happen in every person all the time.
It even happens in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, or analyses the material body including the organ brain. In the west, the primary impact of the idea has been on literature rather than science: This technique perhaps had its beginnings in the monologues of Shakespeare's plays, and reached its fullest development in the novels of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf , although it has also been used by many other noted writers.
Here for example is a passage from Joyce's Ulysses about the thoughts of Molly Bloom:. Consciousness may have a determinative role in quantum mechanics. Since consciousness is the primary aspect of an observer, and observation is sometimes viewed as a primary reason for apparent wave function collapse ,  consciousness may account for aspects of the measurement problem exemplified by the Schrödinger's cat paradox.
This area has been an area of lively debate for decades,  with recent efforts to substitute randomly caused decoherence as the source of apparent wave function collapse. Max Tegmark and John Archibald Wheeler provided a useful survey  of some of the issues. To most philosophers, the word "consciousness" connotes the relationship between the mind and the world. To writers on spiritual or religious topics, it frequently connotes the relationship between the mind and God, or the relationship between the mind and deeper truths that are thought to be more fundamental than the physical world.
Krishna consciousness , for example, is a term used to mean an intimate linkage between the mind of a worshipper and the god Krishna. Wilber described consciousness as a spectrum with ordinary awareness at one end, and more profound types of awareness at higher levels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about cognition. For other uses, see Consciousness disambiguation and Conscious disambiguation.
Problem of other minds. Schema of the neural processes underlying consciousness, from Christof Koch. Stream of consciousness psychology. Level of consciousness esotericism and Higher consciousness. Consciousness portal Medicine portal Mind and Brain portal Philosophy portal. Retrieved June 4, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Psychology of Consciousness.
The Oxford companion to philosophy. In Max Velmans, Susan Schneider. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Man, cultures, and groups in a quantum perspective.
Charles University Karolinum Press. The Nature of Consciousness: Retrieved August 20, A Dictionary of the English Language. Translated by Scott St. Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, Originally published as "Conscience," Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, 3: The whole works, Volume 2. British Journal for the History of Philosophy.
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Macmillan Dictionary of Psychology. Journal of Consciousness Studies. The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original on Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Summer Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Machine man and other writings. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness.
The Quest for Consciousness. A taxonomy and some examples. Cambridge University Press, New York. How bio-molecular machines can generate non-trivial quantum states". The Mystery of Consciousness. The New York Review of Books. Consciousness, Concepts, and Higher-Order Thoughts.
Australasian Journal of Philosophy. In Douglas Hofstadter and Daniel Dennett. Beyond Cognition to Consciousness. Uses authors parameter link Note: In many stories the Golem was mindless, but some gave it emotions or thoughts. Verbal Behavior as the Hallmark of Intelligence.
In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring Edition. The Phenomenal Judgment Approach". Journal of Mind and Behavior. Catching ourselves in the act: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Respectable, useful, and probably necessary. Information processing and cognition: Psychological functions and origins of thought. The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates.
A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Theory, Development, and Organization. Three types of dissociation". The Boundaries of Consciousness: Consciousness in Modern Science.
Can consciousness be reductively explained? Current Opinion in Neurology. I of the Vortex. From Neurons to Self. Archived from the original PDF on Rate enhancement and neuronal synchronization as complementary codes". Edelman and Giulio Tononi A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B.
Manger, and Ann B. Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic, and Physiological Aspects. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Popper , John C. The Self and Its Brain. Origins and recent evidence". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. Journal of the American Philosophical Association. Allan Hobson , Edward F.
Pace-Schott, and Robert Stickgold Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states". Scientific Advances and Reconsiderations. Content analysis of subjective experiences in partial epileptic seizures. The Physical and Psychological Effects of Meditation: Institute of Noetic Sciences. The components of consciousness". In Anthony Jack, Andreas Roepstorff.
The Science of Color. Bennett and Peter Michael Stephan Hacker Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. A Biological Theory of Consciousness. Journal of the Optical Society of America. In Steven Laureys, Giulio Tononi. But the children are well aware of this fact, consciously or not, and react accordingly. But the man's eyes did not consciously record the details of that scene. A word adopted from the Latin poets and much mocked at first. Sense of "active and awake" is from Synonyms Examples Word Origin.
He was conscious during the operation. Conscious, aware, cognizant refer to an individual sense of recognition of something within or without oneself.
Conscious implies to be awake or awakened to an inner realization of a fact, a truth, a condition, etc.: Aware lays the emphasis on sense perceptions insofar as they are the object of conscious recognition: Both words have to do with the mind, but it's more important to be conscious , or awake, than conscience, or aware of right and wrong. Remain conscious while listening to your friend's moral dilemma so you can use your conscience to give good advice.
Conscious, pronounced "KAHN-shuhs," means being aware of yourself or the world around you. It also means being sensitive to something or being awake, not asleep or insensible:. Witnesses say he was bleeding profusely but conscious and talking.
He was even horribly conscious of a slow pallor creeping over his face. Conscience, pronounced "KAHN-shuhns," is a moral understanding, an inner feeling, of right and wrong. If you were a cartoon, your conscience would be that little angel on your shoulder, telling you the right thing to do and to ignore the little devil on the other side.
See the word in action:.
Conscious, aware, cognizant refer to an individual sense of recognition of something within or without oneself. Conscious implies to be awake or awakened to an inner realization of a fact, a truth, a condition, etc.: to be conscious of an extreme weariness. Kids Definition of conscious 1: aware of facts, feelings, or some particular condition or situation He was painfully conscious of his many missing buttons. Define consciously. consciously synonyms, consciously pronunciation, consciously translation, English dictionary definition of consciously. adj. 1. a. Characterized by or having an awareness of one's environment and one's own existence, sensations, and thoughts.